High Power Microwave

High-Power Microwave

L-Band 100 Hz, 3 GW Relativistic Magnetron

 Microwave Sources”, James Benford, in Soviet Macroelectronics (Pulsed Power) Research, FASAC-TAR 2050a, McLean, VA (1984).

Variations on the Relativistic Magnetron”, James Benford, H. Sze, T. Young, D. Bromley, and G. Proulx, IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, 13, 538 (1985).

A Radially and Axially Extracted Virtual-Cathode Oscillator (Vircator)”, H. Sze, J. Benford, T. Young, D. Bromley, and B. Harteneck, IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, 13, 492, (1985).

Virtual-Cathode Oscillator Emission by a Pinched Diode”, J. Benford, H. Sze, W. Woo, and B. Harteneck, Phys. Rev. Lett., 56, 344, (1986).

Dynamics of a Virtual Cathode Oscillator Driven by a Pinched Diode”, J. Benford, H. Sze, W. Woo and B. Harteneck, Phys. Fluids, 29, 3873, (1986).

Magnetron Research at Physics International Company”, J. Benford and H. Sze, Proc. of 3rd Nat’l. Conf. on HPM Techn. for Defense Applications, December 1-5, p. 154, (1986).

Virtual Cathode Microwave Generator Research at Physics International Company”, D. Price, J. Benford, D. Fittinghoff, H. Sze, and W. Woo, Proc. of 3rd Nat’l. Conf. on HPM Techn. for Defense Applications, December 1-5, p. 109, (1986).

“The DNA/PI High Power Microwave Test Facility”, J. Benford, H. Sze and D. Price, Proc. of 3rd Nat’l. Conf. on HPM Techn. for Defense Applications, December 1-5, p. 268, (1986).

Progress on the Relativistic Magnetron”, J. Benford, H. Sze, D. Bromley, and B. Harteneck, Laser and Particle Beams, 5, 573, (1987).

High Power Microwave Emission From a Virtual Cathode Oscillator”, H. Sze, J. Benford, and W. Woo, Laser and Particle Beams, 5, 675 (1987).

Interaction of a Vircator Microwave Generator with an Enclosing Resonant Cavity”, J. Benford, D. Price, H. Sze, and D. Bromley, J. Appl. Phys., 61, 2098, (1987).

Operating Characteristics of a Relativistic Magnetron with a Washer Cathode”, H. Sze, B. Harteneck, J. Benford, and T.S.T. Young, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science, 15, 327 (1987).

Relativistic Magnetrons”, James Benford, Chapter 10 in High Power Microwave Sources, Victor L.  Granatstein and Igor Alexeff, eds., Artech House, Boston, MA (1987).

“High Power Microwave Simulator Development”, James Benford, Microwave Journal, 30, 97 (1987).

Slow-Wave Sources and Vircators”, James Benford, Chapter III in Soviet High-Power Radio Frequency Research, FASAC-TAR 4050, McLean, VA (1988).

Phase-Locking of Relativistic Magnetrons”, J. Benford, R.R. Smith, H. Sze, B. Harteneck, and W. Woo, SPIE 873, 23 (1988).

Cavity Vircator Amplifier−Priming and Phase Locking of High Power Vircators”, Henry Sze, David Price, Wee-Yong Woo, David Fittinghoff, and Jim Benford, SPIE 873, 68 (1988).

HPM Effects on Land Mines”, R. Schneider, D. Price, H. Sze, and J. Benford, Proc. 4th Natl. HPM Conf., Monterey, CA, May, 1988.

Operational Features and Microwave Characteristics of the Vircator II Experiment”, D. Price, D. Fittinghoff, J. Benford, H. Sze, and W. Woo, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 16, 177 (1988).

Direct Experimental Observation of p-Mode Oscillation in a Relativistic Magnetron”, R.R. Smith, H. Sze, B. Harteneck, and J. Benford, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 16, 234 (1988).

Phase Locking of High-Power Microwave Oscillators”, W. Woo, J. Benford, D. Fittinghoff, B. Harteneck, D. Price, R. Smith, and H. Sze, J  Appl Phys, 65, 861 (1989).

Inductive Store/Opening Switch (IS/OS) Pulse Forming System for Driving Compact Microwave Sources”, P. Sincerny, J. Benford, M. Krishnan, K. Pearce, R. Hitchcock, and D. Drury, Proc. 4th Natl. HPM Conf. for Defense Applications, I, 234 (1988).

Strongly Coupled Relativistic Magnetrons for Phase-Locked Arrays”, J.S. Levine, J. Benford, H. Sze, W. Woo, R.R. Smith, and B. Harteneck, SPIE 1061, 144 (1989).

High-Power Vircator Phase-Locking Demonstrations at Physics International”, D. Price, H. Sze, D. Fittinghoff, B. Harteneck, and J. Benford, SPIE 1061, 206 (1989).

Phase Locking of Relativistic Magnetrons”, J. Benford, H. Sze, W. Woo, R.R. Smith, and B. Harteneck, Phys. Rev. Lett., 62, 969 (1989).

Design of a Compact Phase-Locked Module of Relativistic Magnetrons”, J. Levine, N. Aiello, and J. Benford, SPIE 1226, 60 (1990).

Initial Operation of a Compact Phase-Locked Module of Relativistic Magnetrons”, J. Levine, J. Benford, B. Harteneck, and S. Montalvo, SPIE 1226, 44 (1990).

Phase-Locking & Repetitive Operation of Relativistic Magnetrons”, J. Benford, J. Levine, R. Smith, H. Sze and P. Sincerny, Proc. HPM5, West Point, NY (1990).

A Compact Phase Locked Module of Relativistic Magnetrons”, J. Benford and J. Levine, Beams 90, Novosibirsk, USSR, World Scientific Pub., 1, 321 (1990).

Design and Operation of a Module of Phase-Locked Relativistic Magnetrons”, J. Levine, N. Aiello, J. Benford, and B Harteneck, J. Appl. Phys, 70, 2838 (1991).

Development & Test of an L-Band Magnetron”, Richard R. Smith, J. Benford, B. Harteneck, and Henry M. Sze, IEEE Trans. on Plas. Sci., 19, 628 (1991).

Operational Characteristics of a Phase-Locked Module of Relativistic Magnetrons”, J. Levine, J. Benford, R. Courtney, and B. Harteneck, SPIE 1407, 74 (1991).

Operation of an L-Band Relativistic Magnetron at 100 Hz”, R. R. Smith, J. Benford, N. Cooksey, N. Aiello, J. Levine, and B. Harteneck, SPIE 1407, 83 (1991).

High Power Microwaves, James Benford and John Swegle, Artech House, Boston MA (1992).

High Power Microwave Applications”, James Benford and John Swegle, SPIE 1629, 69 (1992).

Trends and Developments in the Virtual Cathode Oscillator”, James Benford, High Power Microwave Generation and Applications, E. Sindoni and C. Wharton, eds., ISPP-10, Piero Caldirola, 287, Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy (1992).

Magnetrons and Other Crossed-Field Devices”, James Benford, High Power Microwave Generation and Applications, E. Sindoni and C. Wharton, eds., ISPP-10, Piero Caldirola, 299, Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy (1992).

An Introduction to High Power Microwaves”, James Benford and John Swegle, Microwave Journal 35,105 (1992) and J. of Electronic Defense, EW Ref. and Source Guide, (1994).

High Peak and Average Power with an L-Band Relativistic Magnetron on CLIA”, Steve Ashby, Richard R. Smith, Norman Aiello, James N. Benford, Nicholas Cooksey, David V. Drury, Bruce D. Harteneck, Jerrold S. Levine, Peter Sincerny, Lance Thompson, and Leland Schlitt, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 20, 344 (1992).

Phase-Locking of Strongly Coupled Relativistic Magnetrons”, J. Benford, H. Sze, R. Smith and B. Harteneck, IEEE Trans. on EM Compatability, 34, 235 (1992).

High Power Microwave Generation at High Repetition Rates”, N. Aiello, J. Benford, N. Cooksey, B. Harteneck, J. Levine, D. Price, R. Smith, D. Sprehn, and M. Willey, Beams 92, NTIS PB92-206168, 1, 203 (1992).

Applications of High Power Microwaves”, James Benford and John Swegle, Beams ‘92, NTIS PB92-206168, 1, 341 (1992).

Advanced High-Current Accelerators”, (Ch.V) and “High-Power Microwave Devices” (Ch.VIII) in Pulsed Power Research in the Former Soviet Union, FASAC-TAR (1993).

Techniques for High Power Microwave Sources at High Average Power”, James N. Benford, Nicholas J. Cooksey, Jerrold S. Levine, and Richard R. Smith, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 21, 388 (1993).

High Average Power Modulator and Accelerator Technology Developments at Physics International”, P. Sincerny, C. Deeney, S. Ashby, D. Bhasavanich, J. Benford, G. Frazier, and J. Levine, NATO ASI Series, G 24, Part A, Non-Thermal Plasma Techniques for Pollution Control, B. M. Penetrante and S.E. Schultheis,eds., Springer-Verlag, (1993).

Applications of High-Power Microwaves to Modification & Measurement of the Atmosphere”, James Benford, SPIE 1872, 146 (1993).

High Power Microwave Generators”, James Benford, Proceedings of XXI Int’l Conf on Phenomena in Ionized Gases,Vol. III, 6 (1993)

State of the Art in High-Power Microwaves: An Overview”, John A. Swegle and James N. Benford, Proc. Lasers ’93, Lake Tahoe, CA, (1993).

Modification and Measurement of the Atmosphere by High Power Microwaves”, James Benford, Applications of High Power Microwaves, A. V. Gaponov-Grekov and V. Granatstein ed, Chapter 12, 209, Artech House , Boston MA, (1994).

Relativistic Magnetrons and Klystrons at Long Pulse Durations”, James Benford, Jerrold S. Levine, S.K. Lam, Bruce D. Harteneck, David Price and Michael J. Willey, Beams ’94 , NTIS PB 95-144317, 1, 272 (1994).

Relativistic Magnetrons and Klystrons at High Repetition Rates and High Average Powers”, James Benford, Jerrold S. Levine, David Price, Bruce D. Harteneck and Michael J. Willey, EUROEM ’94, 1, 170 (1994).

Propulsion of Microspacecraft to Orbit Using High Power Millimeter Waves”, Leik N. Myrabo and James N. Benford, Proc. 29th Microwave Power Symposium, 116 (1994).

Heimdall—An Expert System Code for Modelling RF Weapon Sources and Systems”, James Benford, C. Joseph Butler and Ella Sitkin, Proc. Seventh National Conference on High Power Microwave Technology, Monterey, CA (1994).

Fielding HPM Technology”, J. N. Benford, J. W. Hudson, H. D. Price, T. C. Cherry and M. J. Willey, Proc. Seventh National Conference on High Power Microwave Technology, Monterey, CA (1994).

Space Propulsion and Power Beaming Using Millimeter Systems”, J. Benford and R. Dickinson, Intense Microwave Pulses III, H. Brandt, Ed.,SPIE 2557, 179 (1995).  Also published in Space Energy and Transportation, 1, 211 (1996).

Pulse Shortening in High Power Microwave Sources”, James Benford, David Price and Gregory Benford, Beams ’96, ISBN 80-9092250-3-9, 1, 217 (1996).

Central University Research Consortium”, M. Kristiansen, Edl Schamiloglu, Ron Gilgenbach, Proc. 10th Int’l Pulsed Power Conf., IEEE 95CH35833, pg. 80, (1995)

The Power Beaming Route to Space”, James Benford, Analog, Vol. CXVI, No. 14, (Dec. 1996).

Survey of Pulse Shortening in High Power Microwave Sources“, James Benford and Gregory Benford, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 25, 311 (1997).

ORION-A Frequency-Agile HPM Field Test System”, J. Benford, J. S. Levine and D. Price, Seventh National Conference on High Power Microwave Technology, Laurel, MD (1997).

Recent Progress in the Hard-Tube MILO Experiment”, M. Haworth, K. Allen, G. Baca, J. Benford, T. Englert, K. Hackett, K. Hendricks, D. Henley, R. Lemke, D. Price, D. Ralph, M. Sena, D. Schiffler, and T. Spencer, SPIE 3158, pg. 28, (1997).

Significant Pulse-Lengthening in a Multigigawatt Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Oscillator”, M. Haworth, G. Baca, J. Benford, T. Englert, K. Hackett, K. Hendricks, D. Henley, M. LaCour, R. Lemke, D. Price, D. Ralph, M. Sena, D. Schiffler, and T. Spencer, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 26, 312 (1998).

Diode Plasma Effects on the Microwave Pulse Length from Relativistic Magnetrons”, D. Price, J. S. Levine and J. Benford, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 26, 348 (1998).  Earlier version in Intense Microwave Pulses V, H. Brandt, Ed., SPIE 3158, 173 (1997).

General Scaling of Pulse Shortening in Explosive-Emission-Driven Microwave Sources”, D. Price and J. Benford, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 26, 256 (1998).

General Scaling of Pulse Shortening in Explosive-Emission-Driven Microwave Sources”, D. Price and J. Benford, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 26, 256 (1998).

General Scaling of Pulse Shortening in Explosive-Emission-Driven Microwave Sources“, James Benford and David Price, Beams ’98, 2, 691, (1998).

High-Power Microwaves at 25 Years: The Current State of Development”, John A. Swegle and James N. Benford, Proc. Beams ’98, 1, 149, (1998).

Microwave Beam-Driven Sail Flight Experiments”, James Benford, Gregory Benford, Keith Goodfellow, Raul Perez, Henry Harris, and Timothy Knowles, Proc. Space Technology and Applications International Forum, Space Exploration Technology Conf, AIP Conf. Proceedings 552, ISBN 1-56396-980-7STAIF, pg. 540, (2001).

Stability and Control of Microwave Propelled Sails in 1-D”, Chaouki T. Abdallah, Edl Schamiloglu, James Benford, and Gregory Benford, Proc. Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2001), Space Exploration Technology Conf, AIP Conf. Proc. 552, ISBN 1-56396-980-7STAIF, pg. 552, (2001).

3-D Simulations of Rigid Microwave Propelled Sails Including Spin”, Edl Schamiloglu, Chaouki T. Abdallah, Kristina A. Miller, Daniel Georgiev, James Benford, Gregory Benford, and Gurkirpal Singh, Proc. Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2001), Space Exploration Technology Conf, AIP Conf. Proc. 552, ISBN 1-56396-980-7STAIF, pg. 559, (2001).

Pulse Shortening”, James Benford, Chapter 4 of Advances in High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Robert Barker and Edl Schamiloglu, eds., pg. 77, IEEE Press, (2001)

Flight and Spin of Microwave-driven Sails: First Experiments, James Benford, Proc. Pulsed Power Plasma Science 2001, IEEE 01CH37251, Pg. 548, (2001).

Experimental Tests of Beam-Riding Sail Dynamics”, James Benford, Gregory Benford, Olga Gornostaeva, Eusebio Garate, Michael Anderson, Alan Prichard, and Henry Harris, Proc. Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2002), Space Exploration Technology Conf, AIP Conf. Proc. 608, ISBN 0-7354-0052-0, pg. 457, (2002).

Control of Microwave-Propelled Sails Using Delayed Measurements”, E. Schamiloglu, C.T. Abdallah, G. L. Heileman, D. Georgiev, J. Benford, and G. Benford, Proc. Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2002), Space Exploration Technology Conf, AIP Conf. Proc. 608, ISBN 0-7354-0052-0, pg. 463, (2002).

Sail Deployment By Microwave Beam—Experiments And Simulations”, Gregory Benford, Olga Gornostaeva, Alan Pritchard, James Benford, Lisa Nakodym, David Vaughan, and Henry Harris, Proc. Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2002), Space Exploration Technology Conf, AIP Conf. Proc. 608, ISBN 0-7354-0052-0, pg. 447, (2002).

Desorption Assisted Sun Diver Missions”, Gregory Benford and James Benford, Proc. Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2002), Space Exploration Technology Conf, AIP Conf. Proc. 608, ISBN 0-7354-0052-0, pg. 462, (2002).

Flight of Microwave-Driven Sails: Experiments and Applications”, James Benford and Gregory Benford, Beamed Energy Propulsion, AIP Conf. Proc. 664, pg. 303, A. Pakhomov, ed., (2003).

Spin of Microwave Propelled Sails” Gregory Benford, Olga Goronostavea and James Benford, Beamed Energy Propulsion, AIP Conf. Proc. 664, pg. 313, A. Pakhomov, ed., (2003).

Experimental Tests Of Beam-Riding Sail Dynamics”, Gregory Benford, Olga Goronostavea and James Benford, Beamed Energy Propulsion, AIP Conf. Proc. 664, pg. 325, A. Pakhomov, ed., (2003).

Near-Term Beamed Sail Propulsion Missions: Cosmos-1 and Sun-Diver”, James Benford and Gregory Benford, Beamed Energy Propulsion, AIP Conf. Proc. 664, pg. 358, A. Pakhomov, ed., (2003).

The Ultimate Rocket: Doing Better Than the Sun”, Gregory Benford and James Benford, Planetary Report, vol. 23, pg. 16, (2003).

A Universal Power Transfer Curve”, R.C. Hansen, J. McSpadden, and J.N. Benford, IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 369-371, (2005).

An Aero-Spacecraft For The Far Upper Atmosphere Supported By Microwaves”, G. Benford, J. Benford, Acta Astronautica, 56, pg. 529, (2005).

Acceleration of Sails by Thermal Desorption of Coatings”, G. Benford, J. Benford, Acta Astronautica, 56, pg. 593, (2005).

MAX-Microwave Acceleration eXperiment with Cosmos-1”, James Benford, Gregory Benford and Tom Kuiper, Proc. Fourth IAA Symposium on Realistic Near-Term Advanced Scientific Space Missions, J. Brit. Interplanetary Soc., 59, pg. 68, (2006).

Elastic, Electrostatic and Spin Deployment of Ultralight Sails”, James Benford, and Gregory Benford. Proc. Fourth IAA Symposium on Realistic Near-Term Advanced Scientific Space Missions, J. Brit. Interplanetary Soc. 59, pg. 76, (2006).

Power-Beaming Concepts for Future Deep Space Exploration”, Gregory Benford and James Benford, Proc. Fourth IAA Symposium on Realistic Near-Term Advanced Scientific Space Missions, J. Brit. Interplanetary Soc. 59, pg. 104, (2006).

High Power Microwaves, Second Edition, James Benford, John A. Swegle and Edl Schamiloglu, Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, (2007)

Space Applications of High Power Microwaves”, James Benford, Proc. 16th IEEE Int’l Pulsed Power Conf., IEEE 07CH37864C, pg. 258, (2007).

End-to-End Modeling with the HEIMDALL Code to Scope HPM Systems”, John A. Swegle and James Benford, Proc. 16th IEEE Int’l Pulsed Power Conf., IEEE 07CH37864C, pg. 1114, (2007).

Solutions to Problems for High Power Microwaves, Second Edition, James Benford, and John A. Swegle, Microwave Sciences, Lafayette, CA (2007).

Space Applications of High Power Microwaves”, James Benford, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 36, pg. 569, (2008).

“Cost Optimization of HPM Systems”, James Benford and Dominic Benford, Proc. Beams 2008, Inst. Fluid Phys., Mianyang, China, pg. 6, (2008).

Messaging With Cost Optimized Interstellar Beacons”, James Benford, Dominic Benford and Gregory Benford, Astrobiology, 10, pg. 475, (2010).

Searching for Cost Optimized Interstellar Beacons”, Gregory Benford, James Benford and Dominic Benford, Astrobiology, 10, pg. 491, (2010).

History and Future of the Relativistic Magnetron”, James Benford, Proc. Int. Conf. CAVMAG2010, pg. 40-45 (2010). LINK

Building And Searching For Cost-Optimized Interstellar Beacons”, James Benford, Dominic Benford and Gregory Benford, in Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Ch. 18, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch, SUNY Univ. Press, NY, pg. 279-306, (2011).

Starship Sails Propelled by Cost-Optimized Directed Energy”, James Benford, JBIS 66, 85 (2013).

Starship Century, edited by James Benford and Gregory Benford, Lucky Bat Press (2013).

Sailships”, in Starship Century, edited by James Benford and Gregory Benford, Lucky Bat Press

The METI Debate-Who Speaks for Earth”, James Benford, in press, JBIS, (2014).

Costs and Difficulties of large-scale METI, and the Need for International Debate on Potential Risks”, John Billingham and James Benford, in press, JBIS, (2014).

Spinning Conductors With Circularly Polarized Electromagnetic Waves”, Gregory Benford, Olga Gornostaeva and James Benford, J. Appl. Phys., in press, (2014).